STEM OPT

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Employer’s obligations

If you are going to hire a trainee on her post education completion OPT (Optional Practical Training)
1 You must sign up with E Verify
2 Need to have the contact information of the student’s DSO—and report:

• Have a planned formal training program-on form I-983-Customized for each student with evaluation
• Any Material Change (like different location) on a new I-983
• Termination of employment —-report within 5 days of termination

2 EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP-
Kind of similar to the H-1B control issue, this is more specific. While employers maybe able to send employee to another location, it cannot be labor for hire. The employer or an employer’s representative should be there to supervise and implement the training described in the 983. For instance if Employer CCC employed OPT student X and deployed them to work for Amazon. Employer CCC must have another employee at Amazon to supervise X at amazon’s presence.

Small consulting companies, who cannot have the above or staffing companies should not hire OPT student. Employers need to make sure that they have enough resources and trained personnel available to train the OPT student.

STUDENTS

One gets 24 months on STEM for any STEM degree. For instance Student X does a Bachelor’s in Engineering—he gets 24 months. The he does a Master’s in Engineering. He gets another 24 mts.

UNEMPLOYMENT PERIOD :

Initial post completion 12 months: 90 days
24 month extension: 150 days

For more information please contact Banerjee & Associates

 

Employment Based Visa Retrogression

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Please note that for the month of September 2018, the Employment based EB-1, 2 and 3 are oversubscribed worldwide. This means no one can file their Employment based I-485 petitions. Additionally if anyone who had an Employment based interview starting August 8—-will not receive their Green Card (Permanent Resident Card), until at least October. This is the first time in history for this to happen.

Charlie Oppenheim, Chief of Visa Section predicts that:
From October, EB-1 both from China and India will be able to file the I-485 petitions

He predicts that EB-1 and EB-2 for all other countries will be current from October 2019. This means that applicants who were interviewed in August will be able to get their Green Card (Permanent Resident Card).

EB-2 for China will retrogress in September 2018 from March 1, 2015 to Jan 1, 2013. This means that EB-3 for China will have a faster Priority Date. However Mr. Oppenheim does predict that China EB-2 will recover from October 2018. It will stay ahead of EB-3 until at least Jan 2019.

For India, both EB-1 and EB-2 will retrogress to 2007 and 2003. But the EB-2 numbers are expected to come up to 2009. EB-3 will move slowly pending demand.

Charlie Oppenheim is the head of the visa numbers at Department of State, and is the best possible source on visas. Please note that these are mere predictions, and may not be true

 

For more information contact Banerjee & Associates

CPT/OPT and H-1B portability Dangers

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On June 28, 2018 and July 13 2018, the CIS issued 2 memos that might drastically change the practice of Immigration law. Since I practice mainly Business Immigration Law, I will discuss the ramification of these two memos as they pertain to Business Immigration.

The RFE memo (July 13th) seems to say that RFEs will be issued for only those cases that does not meet the prima facia evidence. That evidence is just filing ALL THE REQUIRED FORMS. This memo starts from Sept 11.

The Notice to Appear memo (NTA Memo-June 28 ) says that That CIS will issue NTA (ie start removal proceedings) if CIS denies an application.

The guidance for the RFE memo is that we need to do our very best. It has not been interpreted yet, but we do need to file all control letters and Specialty Occupations letters at the filing stage.

But the NTA memo will have more far reaching consequences to Employment based applicants, particularly Stem students and H-1B portability.

An NTA is a document sent by ICE, when CIS refers the case to them. It starts the process of Removal. NTA’s are issued with no dates given on the Notice to Appear. It says TBD.  According to the Supreme Court Case Pereira V Sessions, 2018, the court ruled that writing TBD makes the NTA flawed. It has to specify the date, time and place to appear. Since that is not ICE’s procedure, lawyers have had varied success in getting those cases dismissed. Basically it depends on the judge. But those cases were before Pereira. Now though ICE has to give dates and times, so it remains to be seen what ICE will do.

 

Students on STEM

Current Request for Evidences are not based on third party sites, but on period of stay after obtaining the OPT. Students CANNOT have more than 90 days in a 12 month OPT, more than 120 days for 17 months; and more than 150 days for 24 months. Please note that voluntary work IS counted as work, so they will need employer verification.

What happens if the stem applicant gets a denial of their H status and does not have time left on their OPT?

We would like to have individuals maintain status. Please study in your subject in as good a school you can get in. Please do not take CPT. Please do NOT work illegally.

 

What happens if an H petition for transfer gets denied?

We are advising clients to file with Premium and not quit the first job. Of course the CIS will give an RFE, esp if this is a computer job, and can and does deny with no proof.

 

What happens with folks filing for Adjustment of Status has been on CPT, or has worked with no authorization?

Increasingly CIS officers, during Employment based interviews, are going through an applicant’s status and can deny based on any status issues. However, there is a remedy applicable for Employment based applicants. Under Section 245 K of the INA, the government can only look at status 180 days from the last entry. So as soon as any of these individuals receives their Advance Parole documents, we are sending them to Canada or Mexico just before the interview, so Citizenship and Immigration can ONLY adjudicate status from the last entry.

For more information contact Banerjee&Associates

 

Current Issues in Business Immigration Law

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Stem OPT:
Status: Students cannot have more than 90 days if the OPT is for 12 months
Students cannot have more than 120 days if the OPT is for 17 months
Students cannot have more than 150 days if the OPT is for 24 months
Make sure that the job is in the area of your subject

OPT extension-Third party: There is a fight between Citizenship and Immigration Service and Immigration and Customs enforcement about whether third party placement is allowed on the Stem extension. The problem is not who is wrong or right. The problem is that if using this excuse the Citizenship and Immigration Service denies the H petition, then the F student might get out of status.

CPT: Be very careful with the day one CPT. The Citizenship and Immigration Service will ask to prove that : 1 Your course needs you to have practical training. Also note that the schools MUST have classes as well. You cannot have a job say in a different city as the schools. Very often these are problematic and Citizenship and Immigration Service will rule that you do not have status. If you are out of status for
General advice: Keep in touch with the DSO at ALL times.

H-1B –Request for Evidence : Specialty Occupation-–The key to winning this is Expert opinion. However in third party placements, the Citizenship and Immigration Service wants an expert who has knowledge of the end project. We use folks employers know, rather than pay for stock expertise letters
H-1B Request for Evidence : Pay Level: This was more of a last year’s issue. We had an amazing brief that we wrote and won most of our specialty occupation Requests for Evidence. General advice: Stick to whatever the Employer states in the Labor Condition Application. Be careful for certain SOC codes.

For more Information visit Banerjee & Associates

Visa and Security checks.

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A huge power company client of mine told me that one of their vendors have a policy of not hiring non immigrants. However with the low employment rate, US Citizens or Green card holders cannot be found to fill the positions. The current administration has created this fear of immigrants. This is the process of how much screening goes into getting a US visa, and it is more stringent than any screening done for USCs.

1. In most types of visa the first process is filed with the Citizenship and Immigration Service. I tell my client that they are omniscient, because they can see expunged criminal history, which a State police cannot.

2. When a visa applicant goes to US consulates to get a visa, the Department of State does various types of checks. Apart from all 10 fingers and facial recognition, the Department of State also does various types of name checks, etc. These checks have various names: NCIC, Condor Sao, Mantis SAO, etc. They have intelligence that we will not have. Again, they work with various intelligence agencies, and the process has become extremely stringent since 9/11. If there is any doubt whatsoever, then visas are refused. This might explain why we have not had legal entrants entering with visas since 9/11 have not committed any crimes.

Look these up: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Security_Advisory_Opinion
https://www.fbi.gov/services/cjis/nics
State govts do not have access to these

3. At their Port of Entry, the Customs and Border Patrol does another security check with all 10 fingerprinting and facial recognition. The database that all 3 agencies use are secret and private citizens do not have access to this.

4. It is a violation of employment law to discriminate against someone who the federal Govt has authorized to work. Companies can only discriminate if an individual is not qualified to do the work.

For more information, contact Banerjee and Associates

Institutions for Non Cap H-1B

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Institutions of Higher Education
H1B petitions filed by institutions of higher education, as defined in Section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965, 20 U.S.C. 1001(a), are exempt from the H1B cap.
Under the definition, an institution of higher education is one which:
• Admits students who have completed secondary education;
• Is licensed to provide education beyond secondary school;
• Provides educational programs for which the institutions award bachelors’ degrees or provide programs of not less than 2 years that are acceptable for full credit toward bachelors’ degrees;
• Is a public or non-profit institution; and is accredited or has been granted pre- accreditation status by a recognized accrediting agency.
Non-Profit Entities Related or Affiliated To A Higher Education Institution
H1B petitions filed by non-profit entities that are related or affiliated to an institution of higher education are exempt from the H1B cap.
1. The nonprofit entity is connected to or associated with an institution of higher education through shared ownership or control by the same board or federation;
2. The nonprofit entity is operated by an institution of higher education;
3. The nonprofit entity is attached to an institution of higher education as a member, branch, cooperative, or subsidiary; or
4. The nonprofit entity has entered into a formal written affiliation agreement with a institution of higher education that establishes an active working relationship between the nonprofit entity and the institution of higher education, and a fundamental activity of the nonprofit entity is to directly contribute to the research or education mission of the institution of higher education.—generally Hospitals qualify
Note: Other non profits might be ACWIA fee exempt, but not cap exempt.

For more information please contact Banerjee & Associates

 

H-1B and Computer Consulting Company

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H-1B lottery is upon us again. This post will deal with some common Request for Evidences for H-1Bs for computer professionals.
Let’s start by saying that the government hates Computer Consulting Company, and they in turn do commit the most amount of fraud. But measures to shore up the H-1B should come from Congress. The Citizenship and Immigration Service as an agency cannot act on its own and impose restrictions that violate the rule of law. Add to that the fact that many senior managers at all agencies have quit, and officers are left to adjudicate on their own, giving birth to a disaster. There is no rhyme or reason why Citizenship and Immigration Service makes things up, and why officers adjudicate however way they feel like.
A couple of years ago, the Citizenship and Immigration Service decreed that the title of “Computer Programmer” is not a specialty one. Even though the requirement of a Computer professional is the same as Systems Analyst, software engineer, software developer. Now they don’t like Computer Programmer and Systems Analyst.
As many of you know, new H-1Bs are filed on March 31, to reach the Citizenship and Immigration Service office on April 1. The Citizenship and Immigration Service made an ultra vires declaration on March 31, 2017 that level 1 job for computer professionals, and computer professionals only, are not “Specialized” jobs. In 2010, Citizenship and Immigration Service had held that a petitioner must “control” employees. When challenged by an ex-Congressman, now an attorney who represent nurses and wrote the H-1B law, the Citizenship and Immigration Service selective applies this control doctrine only to Computer professionals.
The Citizenship and Immigration Service also routinely denies cases on the ground that the Computer job is “vague, non specific, and not specialized.” You can give them a 10 page detailed job description, they come back with form denials, which they copy and paste. How do officers judge that a certain job, which they presumably do not understand is “vague” ? Even with expert opinions, the Citizenship and Immigration Service claims, “we don’t have to take expert advice. We can tell that this is a vague description.” These officers earn less than computer professionals. Why they stick to their Government jobs is beyond me.
As I started by saying, there is fraud in the dealings of the computer consulting that has to be remedied. But this is not the way to do it. Because after all it is our freedom that the government guarantees in our Constitution. This will only lead to a slippery slope, whereby other agencies will also make law themselves, until we cease to be a democracy.

For more information contact Banerjee & Associates

A Very Republican solution to DACA/DAPA

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Let me be completely honest with you—-I am not an emotional person. I am hard on everyone and operate on pure logic. So I am not going to argue that folks bought here illegally or entered illegally cannot assimilate into their home country. If Americans of any race can live in Mexico, so can they. I am not a bleeding-heart democrat nor am I an evangelical, looking for extra followers for my religion. What I say is just the rational thing to do.

Very few people come to the USA without papers, looking for something illegal to do. They come here because they find work in the US, rather than in their country of origin. If they did not get jobs, they would go back to their home country, simply because cost of living is higher in US. So we depend on them to clean our houses, cut our grass, etc. I pay about $22/hr per person to clean my house. I am willing to pay more. But I want to come home to a clean house. I had some American maids, but their quality of work was poor and in fact horrible in comparison to what I get from the undocumented workers. American Citizens simply don’t work hard.
If I wanted a foreign nanny, I could get an Au pair. But there are NO visa categories for maids, cooks, gardeners, construction workers. There are limited quantity of fruit pickers and restaurant workers. On a side note, it is important to note that when there was a waiter shortage in Mar A Lago, the number of H-2Bs were increased just to accommodate that shortage.

The immigrants working here with no visas, should be given visas because (1) They have a job; (2) They need to pay taxes. Although many do pay taxes, they don’t have to. Would anyone pay taxes if they did not have to? (3) they need to get auto and health insurance. Otherwise they are just draining our resources.
The undocumented came here to work. They do not need Asylum, or Family Immigration (or the recent term coined by the current administration being “chain” migration.) They work. So unless the US can give us citizens who can construct our houses, clean them, care for our lawns, they have to create visa categories for these types of jobs. If Mar A Lago needs foreign waiters, we need foreign workers to do these jobs. If you create sufficient number of these visa categories and folks still come in undocumented, then yes, call them illegal.

For more information call Banerjee & Associates

Business Immigration in 2017

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In 2016, before the elections, my staff and I had a discussion as to what Immigration will look like in 2017, when Hillary wins. One of them asked, “what if Trump wins”. I brushed her off, saying, “oh, then we all will be annihilated, we will think survival, not immigration.” Of course, that was a joke, but here we are after a year with Trump in the White House.

I will confine myself to changes in Business Immigration during this year. In November of 2016, the US published its “final rule” on Employment based Immigration, an Obama era legacy, making life better for most business non immigrants. With a stated purpose of helping US Employers retain highly skilled individuals, the rule clarified porting, grace periods and other issues in non immigrant and immigrant business visas. So the year actually started with this gift from President Obama.

Of course that euphoria was short lived. Around March of every year, businesses get ready to file the new H-1Bs. Each year the quota for new H-1B is 65,000 +20,000 for US educated personnel. Since more than 200,000 people apply, there is a lottery held. One can file 6 months before the Government year, which starts at October 1. Therefore most petitions are mailed on March31, to reach Citizenship and Immigration (CIS) office on April 01.

On March 31, USCIS issued a “guidance memo” where they said that they do not believe that a level I wages for Computer Professionals does not qualify the employees as “professional employees.” While I do understand the Government’s concern about Computer Consulting Companies (See below), this memo is wrong for so many reasons.
1. Wage levels are set by Department of Labor, (not CIS). This memo is thus ultra vires.
2. To selectively have this for one particular industry violates the rule of law.
3. This memo is not backed up by either law or by a notice and comment period, and thus violates 14th Amendment
But then, the Constitution is not a necessary text for Trump supporters. Subsequently many if not most of those consulting company jobs, which were picked in the lottery, was denied. All those quota numbers were wasted.

Now lets look at the way big business gets its computer business needs. Lets say Macy’s wants to build a new website that would allow customers to browse on what is available in their local store and have something held for them before customers went out to shop. Macy’s will need to build a program. That is a temporary job. The Macy’s Corporation does not want to put in the time and effort to secure these temp jobs. So Macy’s will have a contract with a vendor to provide their computer needs. Sometimes these vendors are intermediary vendors, and they have contracts with sub vendors to get the computer professionals.

Now like many businesses (think Greek diners or Chinese laundromats), the business of supplying Computer Professionals were held by Indian. Not even the whole of India, it was utilized mostly by one state-Andhra Pradesh. Many Colleges there had poor standards. Many systems analysts did not know how to do the job and learned “on the job”. Companies like Macy’s are too big to monitor this. Besides many computer consulting companies were engaged in unethical business practices.

The Computer Consulting owners say that American grads don’t want to do these jobs. The lifestyle is hard—-they need to move from one location to the other with the projects. Usually they have a home base, and work long hours from Monday to Thursday. They fly home on Thursday and leave Sun day night.
Whatever the reason is I think the Government has a legitimate interest to cut back on the fraud. The Obama administration tried to deny H-1Bs with the Control issue, saying that those employees work at end client’s places (Macy’s) and are therefore not employees of the H-1B employer. However that has not had much success, since its inception in 2010.

I do think the current administration is in the correct path by insisting that Computer Consulting H-1B jobs are to be paid more. At least that will ensure that the US gets properly trained individuals. However the means which the current Government took to undertake this was underhanded and violated the Rule of Law.

 

For more information contact Banerjee & Associates

P-1 Athletes

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1. Who Qualify?

1) Individual Athletes
2) Athletes who are members of a team or league has to:
3) Amateur Athletes and Coaches

2. Requirements:

1- An individual has to be internationally famous
Coming to USA to compete in competitions

2 Athletes who are members of a team or league has to:
Be a member of a team that is affiliated with 6 or more sports teams. These teams total revenue should exceed 10 million

3 Amateur Athletes and Coaches
If they are part of a team or franchise that is located in the US, and is also a member of a foreign team in their country that is affiliated with at least 15 teams.

3 Documents:

1. Contract with the US team

And at least two of the following:

Participated significantly in prior season’s sport team or College team
Participate in the National or International Event
A letter from a member of a governing body; member of sport media or a person recognized in sport about how the athlete or the team is internationally recognized
Evidence of a high rank
Evidence of a significant win, or award

 

For more information contact Banerjee & Associates